When you georeference your raster dataset, you define its location using dataset that you want to align with your projected data in ArcMap. The general steps for georeferencing a raster dataset are: Add the raster dataset that aligns with the projected data. – Add control points that link known raster. This tutorial will explain how to georeference a raster image in ArcGIS so it can then be used as an overlay or for digitizing purposes. In this example, a historic.

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This window will allow you to georeference a raster using two windows.

The georeferencing tools on the Georeference tab allows you to georeference any raster dataset. The residual shows you the error in the same units as the data frame spatial reference.

Press and arccmap the X keyboard shortcut. When the error is particularly large, you can remove and add control points to adjust the error. Typically, the adjust and spline transformations give an RMS of nearly zero; however, this does not mean that the image will be perfectly georeferenced. Translation Feedback How can we make this translation better? Aligning the raster georefreence control points Generally you will georeference your raster data using existing spatial data target datasuch as georeferenced rasters or a vector feature class that resides in the desired map coordinate georsference.

Although the RMS error is a good assessment of the transformation’s accuracy, don’t confuse a low RMS error with an accurate registration. Spline transforms the source control points exactly to target control points; the pixels that are a distance from the control points are not guaranteed to be accurate.

When only four links are used, the RMS error will be zero. In the Georeferencing dropdown menu, the Transformation options are helpful if your image necessitates more warping. A column can be clicked to order the values in ascending or descending order. The RMS error tends to be higher than other polynomial transformations since the preservation of shape is more important than the best fit.


Opens a georeferencing link file. Thus, squares and rectangles on the raster dataset are commonly changed into parallelograms of arbitrary scaling and angle orientation. Looking for a label?

Georeferencing toolbar tools—Help | ArcGIS for Desktop

Check this box to automatically show the user where the system thinks the corresponding to-point should be. Link to Main Display. Adding more control points can increase overall accuracy of the spline transformation.

Disable vector snapping while pressed down. Higher-order transformations require more links and, thus, will involve progressively more processing time. The Georeferencing toolbar is used to georeference raster and CAD data. You can also add your links in the Magnification window or the Viewer window. However, transformations higher than third order are rarely needed.

How To: Georeference an image to align with other data

Each link can be turned on or off to evaluate what the result would be. Centers and zooms in to a selected link. Projective requires a minimum of four control points. Zoom in by clicking once or dragging a box in the Image Viewer window.

Maximum number of sampling blocks. You can also store the transformation information in georeferene auxiliary files using the Save command on the Georeference tab. Please provide as much detail as possible. Right-click, in the table of contents, a target layer the referenced dataset and click Zoom to Layer. However, adding more links will not necessarily yield a better registration.

The toolbar has a collection of interactive tools for graphically controlling the georeferencing process. Zoom to the full extent of the ungeoreferenced raster in the Image Viewer window. This is a measure of how close your accuracy is, measured in pixels.


Shifts the georeferecne layer. The error is the difference between where the from point ended up as opposed to the actual location that was specified. The control points are not deleted. The lower order polynomials tend to give a random type error, while the higher order polynomials tend to give an extrapolation error. The projective transformation is especially useful for oblique imagery, scanned maps, and for some imagery products such as Landsat and Digital Globe.

ArcGIS Desktop Help – Georeferencing a raster dataset

georegerence Get Help Request help from arcmal Help Desk. For a raster dataset in a geodatabase, Save will store the geodata transformation to an internal auxiliary file of the raster dataset. Repeat these steps using points from around your map.

If you are using polygons as your referenced layer, you can open the Effects toolbar to adjust the transparency as you add your links.

This drop-down menu allows you to choose a valid georeferenfe. Go Back To Previous Extent. Use a first-order or affine transformation to shift, scale, and rotate a raster dataset. This way you can be certain that you are referencing the same location in both the raster and aligned layers.

The number of links you need to create depends on the complexity of the transformation you plan to use to transform the raster dataset to map coordinates.

Check this box to show the inverse residuals and inverse RMS error in the link table.

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